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Our Article in Book Chapter


My department (Department of Governmental Studies) at the University of Brawijaya is very productive in term of writing a book, and articles in the journal. This year we have launched a book entitled Democratization, Decentralization and Local Dynamic in Contemporary Indonesia. We have published more than ten books. But, this is the first international book, in collaboration with the University of Wyoming The United States. There are ten book chapters, 7 from Indonesia writer and three from Wyoming. Happy to share my part in the book chapter. Actually the short version you can read from my post in The New Mandala. This is the long and full version. The research was conducted in 2016, and the printing process took almost than a year since 2017. I had written my part with my colleagues Mayuko Galuh Mahardika and Anggun Susilo, our part in chapter 5 entitled “Clientelism and Local Bureaucracy: A Case Study of Blitar Municipality and Malang Regency”

The book's cover

The book’s cover

The Book's Contents

The Book’s Contents

BAB 5
Clientilism and Local Bureaucracy: a Case Study of Blitar Municipality and Malang Regency

Mayuko Galuh Mahardika, Restu Karlina Rahayu, Anggun Susilo

 Within various studies, clientelism has always been perceived negatively and has become the main stumbling block in developing countries’ bureaucratic reformation, including Indonesia. Several people have attempted to eradicate, or at least to reduce the practices of clientelism. But instead of reducing, the practices of clientelism has been flourishing in Indonesia’s reformation agenda, recently. So far, Traditional definitions of clientelism have always been emphasized on the sector of rational behaviors between clients and their patron. Therefore, this study will explore, and to provide alternatives of descriptions as to why clientelism still exists and correlate positively to the improvement of public services.

 Benalu Reformasi Birokrasi

After the New Order government ended and Indonesia entered the Reformation era, the Indonesia’s bureaucracy also embarked on a new chapter. Throughout the Reformation era, Indonesia’s bureaucracy, especially within the level of local government, a new spirit in the refinement and the improvement of public services is forged. The improvement of public services, is also complemented with the enhancement of institutional capacity and employees’ technical competences. In many areas in Indonesia, these practices has been implemented widely, thus presenting a new hope for significant changes in the bureaucracy.

Apart from the achievement many local government has made, as mentioned previously, there are several things, if are left undone, can lead to demerits. One essential thing, among others that can ruin bureaucratic performance, is the existence of Clientelism phenomenon. In general, clientelism is the practices of preserving the relationship between patrons and clients which is also one of the traditional practices in the political system. It can also be defined as the reciprocal acts by patrons (rulers/elites) for the political supports given by the clients (constituents/supporters). These practices commonly occurs, especially during regional leader elections (Pilkada).

As a phenomenon that appears in the context of bureaucratic reformation in Indonesia, clientelism secures the main spotlight not only in academic debates, but also in public discussions. In many cases, clientelism is heavily criticized as it is basically nothing more than a practice of Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism (KKN), which became a scourge in the New Order government. However, several facts also show that clientelism is a practice inherent to the culture of the local people. What’s even more interesting, is that many regional leaders in Indonesia (Regent and Mayors) rose up to their positions due to the immense strength that clientelism has. Clientelism that roots deeply are often linked to the improvement of public services and satisfaction. Facts prove that public services improve despite its strong clientelism factor. Based on this phenomenon, this study will attempt to investigate the extent of the relationship between clientelism practices and the improvement of public services within the level of local government.

This study intends to examine clientelism in differing contexts within two different regions, namely Blitar Municipality and Malang Regency. These regions have distinctively contrasting characteristics. Blitar Municipality is a city having a considerably smaller area than Malang Regency. It is known to be a Mataraman region that is not strictly religious, but somewhat a nationalist one. Meanwhile, Malang Regency is regarded as one of the largest regions in East Java with strong sectarianism politics. Malang Regency is one of the regions that still have Islamic boarding schools and mass bases from Nahdlatul Ulama group.

In 2015, both Blitar Municipality and Malang Regency organized a pesta demokrasi through direct regional leader elections. Both Blitar Municipality and Malang Regency declared the continuation of the incumbent for their second term. In Blitar Municipality, there were two candidates who were up against each other in the election for the regional leader, which were the couple Samanhudi Anwar-Santoso and the couple Muhsin-Dwi Sumardiyanto. Samanhudi Anwar-Santoso won the election hands down with a crushing percentage of 92,27%, defeating the couple Muhsin-Dwi. It was one of the highest electoral win scores ever recorded in Indonesia.

In Blitar Municipality, the mayor received a high level of legitimacy from the public, while Malang Regency experienced a decline in its legitimacy. According to the data by the Commission for General Election (KPU) at the election of regional leader for Malang Regency in 2015 based on C1 form data scan result, voter participation showed a percentage of 58,38%, which consisted of 570.809 male voters and 632.927 female voters, summing up to 1.203.736 in total. The Permanent Voter List (DPT) for Malang Regency stated that there were 2.075.729 voters. Result shows, the first political couple, Rendra Kresna-Sanusi who were the incumbent, came out as the winner with 605.817 votes. Then, in second place, the couple Dewanti Rumpoko-Masrifah Hadi received 521.928 votes. Lastly, the couple Nurcholis-Muhammad Mufidz only received 45.723 votes.

The two regions both presented victors from the incumbent, but with a different participation level. Samanhudi was counted on to be a pro-public mayor that implements programs and policies which cater the need of the poor thoroughly. As for Rendra Kresna, his performance didn’t seem as significant as Samanhudi’s. Therefore, based on this background, this study aims to compare the practices of clientelism in two different regions, to question the existence of clientelism in the two places, and to reveal the impact of clientelism to the people in each regions.

Identifying Clientelism

Literature reviews regarding clientelism has dominantly been about the discussion of general elections, both on national level and even more so, at the local level. Commonly, clientelism is defined as the reciprocal relationship between a patron with their client, by giving or other similar things, especially in the context of general elections. Clientelism, in short, can be found in the discussion concerning democracy. In the United States, clientelism is the practice of redistribution from a political party to its ideological supporters[1]. Even further about the issue of redistribution, Robinson and Verdier (2002) argued that redistribution can be inefficient, particularly when redistribution is intended to be some form of work given to the client as an exchange[2]. In addition to it, these two people stated that client’s political commitment towards their patron relies on the kind of work they are offered[3].

Moving to the context of Indonesia, decentralization and democracy didn’t necessarily eradicate the practices of clientelism. In fact, Joshua Barter (2002) indicated that a radical decentralization, which drastically reduced central jurisdiction, will result in the blossoming of clientelism practices if accompanied with weak controls at the local scale. What’s even more interesting from Barter is when he mentioned that the patron-client relationship in terms of clientelism, is not always exploitative[4]. Clientelism can be mutually strengthening and beneficial. In its practices, clientelism is not as simple as offering rewards to political supporters. The rewards given by the patron to their clients depends on two things, which are a) State’s financial resources which can be manipulated and b) obstacles in doing rent-seeking[5]. Even more so, the high intensity of rent-seeking is the result of the large amount of manipulable budget and little amount of obstacles in doing so[6].

There’s a good thing in perceiving clientelism and its correlation with political party funding. In regard to this, there are several cases which perfectly illustrates the point, such as the governance of Aburizal Bakrie and Yusuf Kalla with each of their own’s party. This is one of the characters of clientelism in Indonesia as expressed by Andres Ufen (2010). Under their very own governments is where clientelism survived. Even though the attempts to cut down clientelism had been extensively carried out through the continuous practices of economic and governance liberalization. Nonetheless, most people are in favor of clientelism because to them, this is their primary strategy to survive[7].

Clientelism, is a phenomenon that is widely happening in developing countries, especially those implementing democratic system. The process of direct general election became a political agenda reeked with practices of clientelism. Deasy Simandjuntak (2012) argued that “corrupt practices and electoral democracy could be two sides of the same coin, especially in societies where patron-clients relations are significant”. Corresponding to this, are ways to describe the emergence and the continuation of clientelism practices in developing countries, particularly in Indonesia. Majority of experts suggest that the political transitions in Indonesia were caused by factor of civil society powers and also the drive for economic growth. However, a different explanation reveals that the political transition in Indonesia:

“…was induced not by an assertive civil society, but by Suharto’s excessive centralization of patronage network, which had the effect of alienating an increasing proportion of political elites and widening the cleavages between ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’[8].

Even more so, the patron-client relationship can be interpreted through the terminology ‘gifts and promises’ (Simandjuntak 2012). It is undeniable that this patron-client relationship is as if it is ‘institutionalized’ within political parties’ campaigning procession by offering political gimmicks and promises by parties involved in the general election.

Addressing the issue, Dirk Tomsa and Andreas Ufen (2013) stated that the political parties in Southeast Asian countries have unfavorable reputations because of their constant failures to aspire the dynamics in social reformations and to continuously identify themselves with practices of clientelism at the same time. Indeed, the public needs to realize the fact that, the fundamental changes in the political system—in this case, decentralization—lead to consequences which can result in the deconstruction of decentralization itself.

In larger countries such as Indonesia, destructive practices like clientelism has been found in many remote areas as stated by Joshua Barter (2008), where he mentioned “…in remote regions and specific sectors, decentralization has meant a weaker state, more clientelism and continued environmental destruction”. Interestingly, Barter expressed that the patron-client relationship, in terms of clientelism, is not always exploitative (Ibid). Clientelism can be mutually strengthening and beneficial. In its practices, clientelism is not as simple as offering rewards to political supporters. The rewards given by the patron to their clients depends on two things, which are a) State’s financial resources which can be manipulated and b) obstacles in doing rent-seeking.

Furthermore, a challenge within the democracy system (Including the decentralization model) is voter’s involvement in the process of general elections. Instead of strengthening the middle class, what often happened—and had a strong correlation with clientelism—is the strengthening of patron-client relationship through vertical communication paths, even more those that target the poor (Roberts 2016). The term ‘money politics’ is often used to refer the practices of ‘buying votes’ which are done by the candidates to their possible voters. For practices like this, the poor are exploited more due to their immediate need for money and on the other side, the candidates needed their votes.  As a matter of fact, they are often recruited to the candidates’ ‘succeeding team’; an informal team made to triumph a certain candidate[9].

Another interesting thing to point out is the duration of the patron-client relationship. So far, literatures revealed that the strength of the patron-client relationship relies on the patron’s ability to provide concession to their client as agreed during the campaigning period. The arguments offered are the existing policies determine whether personal has a specific choice[10]. Another important matter, and a quite complex one, is to explain the correlations among the political parties, the candidates, and the voters-to-be. Several arguments tried to observe political parties’ characters while others attempted to describe voters’ behavioral patterns. In the context of Indonesia, it is found to be quite challenging to draw a clear demarcating line between the two of it. However, what matters to be made into conclusion is that the political systems and parties in Indonesia can’t be separated from the tradition of clientelism[11].

There’s a good thing in perceiving clientelism and its correlation with political party funding. In regard to this, there are several cases which perfectly illustrates the point, such as the governance of Aburizal Bakrie and Yusuf Kalla with each of their own’s party. This is one of the characters of clientelism in Indonesia as expressed by Andres Ufen (2010). Under their very own governments is where clientelism survived. Even though the attempts to cut down clientelism had been extensively carried out through the continuous practices of economic and governance liberalization. Nonetheless, most people are in favor of clientelism because to them, because this is their primary strategy to survive[12].

According to Jonathan Hopkin, Clientelism is a form of personal exchange characterized by the presence of obligations and even an unequal power relations between them, and indicated with patron’s activities that provide access to client in the form of specific means and facilities, ultimately forming a reciprocal relationship (a mutually beneficial exchange)[13].  Meanwhile, according to Magaloni, clientelism is a two-way, asymmetrical, and reciprocal personal relations between a patron and a client by giving materials to be exchanged with the supporting loyalty from the client.[14]

Looking deep into the core, clientelism is a form of dyadic and personal exchange which is often showed by a sense of obligation, and much more frequently, by an unequal power between those involved[15].  Furthermore, as stated by Kitschelt and Wilkinson, Clientelism is considered to have diverse networks and perpetual or long-term relationships. A further explanation can be seen as shown below:

“Dalam banyak sistem yang ditandai dengan tingkat kemiskinan yang relatif tinggi seperti di Thailand, India, Pakistan, atau Zambia, patron langsung menilai kesetiaan kliennya dengan imbalan uang, minuman keras, pakaian, makanan, atau barang lainnya yang dapat dikonsumsi segera… Jauh lebih sering daripada transaksi tunggal. Bagaimanapun juga, jaring pertukaran, kewajiban, dan timbal balik yang berkelanjutan membutuhkan waktu yang lebih lama, dimana patron harus menyediakan barang pribadi atau kebutuhan kelompok untuk klien mereka” (Kitschelt dan Wilkinson, 2007: 19).[16]

 “In many system marked with relatively high poverty level such as in Thailand, India, Pakistan, or Zambia, patrons directly evaluate their clients’ loyalty through money, liquors, clothes, foods, or any other direct consumables… Far more often than single transactions. However it may be, exchange networks, obligations, and reciprocity which are sustainable, requires longer time, where patrons must provide personal things or group needs for their clients”

 Theoretically, referring to James Scoot’s opinion, the cause of clientelism’s intensifying, among others, can be seen below:

 “Pertama, sumberdaya penting dikelola dan dikontrol oleh kelompok tertentu di dalam masyarakat, bentuk sumberdaya tersebut biasanya berbentuk alokasi ekonomi. Kedua, sang patron secara sangat kuat meminta atau mensyaratkan adanya layanan balik yang bisa disediakan oleh klien. Ketiga, Kelompok-kelompok klien secara keseluruhan akan dicegah untuk bisa memperoleh akses terhadap sumberdaya yang dikontrol oleh kelompok patron. Keempat, tiadanya etika alokasi publik yang diimplementasikan secara efektif. Yang dimaksud etika publik ini adalah sebuah mekanisme atau sistem yang didalamnya sumberdaya publik dialokasikan dan dipertukarkan berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria universal dibanding kriteria-kriteria personal atau privat”[17].

 “Firstly, crucial resources are managed and controlled by a specific group within the society, these resources are often in the form of economic allocations. Secondly, the patron firmly requests or demands a service in return that the client must provide. Thirdly, groups of clients are collectively restricted to receive access towards the resources controlled by the groups of patrons. Fourthly, the absence of public allocation ethics that are effectively implemented. What is defined as public ethics, is a mechanism or system which, inside it, public resources are allocated and exchanged based on universal criteria, instead of personal or private criteria” [18].

This means, the politics of clientelism is not exclusive as a tool to solve problems, it is the “ways to provide” which shows the role of patrons as the constituent element of client which understands what the clients want, it is the central dimension of work and perseverance of patronage[19]. The previously explained definitions of Clientelism above, at least provide an idea of the differences that lies between the concepts of patronage reviewed beforehand with this concept of clientelism.

In its development, clientelism experienced a phase where a new form emerges and is called as the new clientelism. Old clientelism is the form of social and politic exchanges, in the sense of “it involves certain principles that an individual grants extra treatments to another individual, and despite there are general expectations for a reward in the future, its certainty is not stated ahead of time[20]. While new clientelism resembled the exchange of “economy” or “market”, where the clients tries to maximize utilities regardless of the obligations for, or identifications with, other actors[21].

This new clientelism commonly appears within societies who are inside a more-advanced economic structure and who give different impacts towards the existing party politics[22]. This new clientelism emerges on the conditions that the role of the state is strong and is expanding in various economic activities and social live in the society. Aside from that, looking at the patron’s side, where the old clientelism emphasized more towards autonomous individuals and had powers within a more traditional society, on the new clientelism, the roles of autonomous patrons are replaced by political parties.  At local scale, both political party actors and its leader don’t have influence as strong as the autonomous individuals at the old clientelism, because of their dependency towards the political party itself. As stated by Hopkins:

 Dalam klientelisme baru, patron adalah organisasi partai, bukan individu-individu di dalamnya. Perlakuan khusus klientelistik dibagi-bagikan oleh anggota organisasi partai, yang pada gilirannya menerima otoritas untuk kegiatan ini dari tingkatan atas dalam hirarki partai. Klientelisme karena itu menjadi birokratis, dan kurang personal, meskipun kontak pribadi antara perwakilan partai dan pemilih individu tetap penting untuk mempertahankan hubungan. Dalam hal ini, klientelisme partai massa adalah titik tolak yang signifikan dari klientelisme tokoh[23].

In new clientelism, the patrons are party organizations, not the individuals in it. Clientelistic specific treatments are distributed by the members of party organizations, where in turn, they receive authority for this activity from the higher level of party hierarchy. Thus, clientelism became bureaucratic, and less personal, even though personal contact between party representative and individual voter remained essential in order to sustain the relationship. In this case, mass party clientelism became the significant starting point of figure clientelism[24].

Edward Aspinall and Mada Sukamajati explained the difference between patronage and clientelism, which is:[25]

Patronase merujuk pada materi atau keuntungan lain yang didistribusikan oleh politisi kepada pemilih atau pendukung. Sebaliknya, klientelisme merujuk pada karakter relasi antara politisi dan pemilih atau pendukung.

Patronage refers to materials or other benefits that are distributed by politicians to the voters or supporters. Conversely, clientelism refers to the relation character between politicians and voters or supporters.

A relationship marked by the giving of economic or political resources from the patron often has a power which is personal and expects loyalty and political supports from the beneficiary[26]. This political exchange pattern is known as the form of clientelism in the domain of politics. Political clientelism, in its simplest definition, is described as the distributions of selected benefits to the individuals or groups clearly identified, in exchange for their political supports[27].

The use of the term clientelism itself remains highly controversial due to the wide and varying nature of the patterns of political exchanges, which can be described with this term. Clientelism is a form of personal exchange and is usually characterized with the presence of several obligations and, even, an unequal power relations between those involved[28]. The pattern of this relationship is indicated with patron’s activities to provide access to client in the form of basic subsistence means and facilities, ultimately forming a reciprocal relationship with the client through activities which combines the funding service for the provision of economic goods.

Three additional features which distinguish the patron-client relationship that is implied by the definition, is their basis in inequality, their character when meeting face to face, and their expanding flexibility[29]. There are, at least, two important and inherent elements which are embedded in clientelism activity[30]. The first, reciprocity (type of exchange in a relationship). On the exchange type in a relationship, two groups are involved in the provision of goods and service, and share benefits which mutually advantage in a relatively voluntary condition, which means clientelism activities couldn’t be discovered in a total authoritarian political system or in relationship models of slavery and mastery. Patrons exchange resources (works and protections) with votes, supports, and client loyalties. The two are interconnected through fabric of interest and “friendship”. The second, there lies an inequality which occurs in the exchange because the patron has various resources, and the client transforms that relationship pattern into a vertical pattern, a pattern requiring superiority of one over another inside the relationship.

A more complete definition of clientelism, at least contains three components, according to Aspinall and Sukmajati referring to Hicken[31]. Firstly, contingency or reciprocity is the giving of goods and services from a party (patron or client) which is a direct response from the giving of benefits from another party. Secondly, hierarchy is the presence of the emphasis on an imbalance or unequal power relation between a patron and a client. Thirdly, repeating aspect is the clientelistic exchanges that occur repetitively.

Clientelism in Regions

Ever since regional autonomy was implemented in Indonesia, local government had the authority to regulate its household affairs and the jurisdictions to implement the wheel of government in their own region. Based on the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 23 of 2014 on Local Government Article 1 Section 6, Regional Autonomy is the right, authority, and duty of the autonomous region to regulate and manage their own government affairs and public interests in the system of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia”[32]. The article firmly stated that the local government has the obligation and authority to manage its own household affair.

The presence of granting authority from central government to local government, indirectly hands over a strong and strategic position to the local Regional Leader. Both Samanhudi and Rendra Kresna entered their second period of their leadership as the local regional leader. Samanhudi defeated his only competitor by a great margin of 92%. As for Rendra Kresna, he had to compete against 2 other couples and was almost unable to advance to the regional leader election due to problems faced by Golkar. Which means in the end, Rendra shifted his position to the Nasdem Party. The number of votes that Rendra received are 50,3%; only 7% higher than his nearest competitor, Dewanti-Masrifah who received 43,4% of the votes. The political participation level in Blitar Municipality was high, where in Malang Regency, the number of voters didn’t reach 50% of the enlisted voters’ amount.

Comparing Blitar Municipality with Malang Regency in terms of demography, is like comparing watermelon with orange; David vs. Goliath. But on the aspect of leadership, it doesn’t necessarily mean that Samanhudi, who leads the relatively smaller city, doesn’t have a strong character. His backgrounds which originated from the lower segment of people drove him to devise pro-poor work programs. Meanwhile, Rendra Kresna, who leads a region which has much higher potentials and local government income and spending budget (APBD) than Blitar Municipality, didn’t seem to show significant changes in Malang Regency. Eventually, what mattered is not how big a region is, but how effective a regional leader’s performance and leadership style. Admittedly, governing the second largest region in East Java Province is far more challenging than a region that is only a tenth in size of Malang Regency. Behind the difficulty, Malang Regency also has a far greater potential deep within.

Clientelism can be formed by a strong and dominant leader figure. Through this strong figure, a pattern or patron is formed. Therefore, employees become more obedient to the figure due to imbalances in exchanges or transactions. Client obedience can be obtained by the leader through granting of positions, work programs, even funds. This sort of leadership character is, ultimately, what causes the existence of patrons and clients.

Different atmospheres were visible upon seeing the government instances of Malang Regency and Blitar Municipality. The bureaucrats at Malang Regency tended to be more bureaucratic and less-friendly when assisting researchers. Requests for data were not responded well and tended to be rejected. We had to take pictures of the data using cellular phones. While in Blitar Municipality, without having to show research letter from the National and Political Unity Agency (Bakesbang), the bureaucrats responded well. During interview, the process went casually and pleasantly. Prior requesting data, we are royally given both the soft files and the hard copies.

Generally, throughout this writing, we argued that the practices of clientelism are clearly identified in Blitar Municipality and Malang Regency. The examples are obvious, corresponding to what we have discovered when examining clientelism, according to the experts. However, what separated and also became an interesting point on facts that occurred in each region, is that the intended clientelism is not only limited to providing benefits to just the clients, but also to the public. The reason for this differences indeed vary, one of which is the personal character of the leader.

Benefits received by clients

            Practices of clientelism in Blitar Municipality, according to various primary sources from both inside and outside the bureaucratic area, mentioned that these practices are indicated by the granting of certain positions in exchange for their supports. The positions mentioned can vary in terms of their location and strategic aspects. For instance, a position as the Head of Regional Company, management in the national sports committee, even at the legislative institutions. Also, there is the Educator Profession Allowances (TPP) to personnel which, prior to this, do not exist. These allowances are given equally to all employees each month. This is contrasting with the previous condition where the honors accumulated on the officials, and the staffs didn’t receive any. In the beginning of the TPP, the officials used to complain about the situation because it negatively impacted their incomes.

One example in the granting of public positions, is the position for the head of the National Sports Committee of Indonesia (KONI), which was given to a close friend of the mayor of Blitar Municipality. Prior to serving as the mayor, they both are colleagues at PDIP. Even further, ‘the client’ explained how both of them strive for the victory on the election for the Mayor of Blitar where the currently elected mayor, along with ‘the client’ conducted mass mobilization—including door-to-door campaign. When the Mayor was elected, it was natural for him to give ‘the clients’ something in return for their hard work throughout the campaign to victory.

            In regards to the kind of receivers, the rewards given also varied. One of which is the kind of benefit given to business people. A concrete form of this kind of benefit is the sense of security in building businesses and investing in Blitar Municipality areas. This was expressed by a colleague from the political party of the elected mayor. According to a received information, campaign team conducted a survey, including a discussion with all segments of the society, such as business people, religious leader representatives, youth movement representatives, and general public. Based on the attempts to extract this information, the impressions obtained is that in Blitar, business people feel unsafe in the building of their enterprises due to the growing number of thugs (preman) which, often times, these thugs demand informal fees. The current candidate for mayor at that time, finally agreed to give the feeling of safety—a promise made during his campaign—for the business people in exchange for their supports to the candidates.

Not only that, numerous programs/development projects with large values had been prioritized to certain enterprises (such as the Embun Group). The form of work involved is the operation of physical projects and goods procurements. Embun Group did several protocol road sections in Blitar Municipality. But overall, the beneficiaries of political supports are from the general public.

However, the supports from the general public to the mayor didn’t go without critiques based on evaluative assumptions and thoughts. For example, program of providing school uniforms. This program was assessed well per se, but was poorly implemented. The fabrics handed out and the bags distributed are found to be of low quality and are easily damaged. So did the development projects that have been, or currently, carried out. All of them lead to the direct decision by the Mayor regarding the winner of the tender

History of patron-client relationship

Most of the times, clients are close colleagues of the patrons (in this case, the Mayor) who have known each other for some time. This also correlates with the backgrounds and the decisions the Mayor throughout his life and before becoming regional leader. As expressed by the Mayor himself, his past as a thug made him know a lot of people and the whole picture of the Blitar citizens intimately, and vice versa, where the citizens knew him long before becoming a regional leader.

Related to this patron-client relationship, it is ought to know that the Mayor had a close relationship with party colleagues. This is corresponding to the statement belonged to one of his close colleague who, currently, happens to be given the responsibility to lead a Regional Company. The colleague narrated that the Mayor, along with other party cadres, competed for its triumph to gain votes during the general election. Even though the efforts done throughout this time is conducted by any means necessary.

Non-political reasons in choosing clients

In this component, the information obtained less remembered clients close to the Mayor, and almost all had the same political power potential. What distinguished enough was the clients who were ‘unselected’, yet showed high loyalty, like the Chinese-ethnic business people. According to the information gotten from two interviewees, the efforts to gather the Chinese ethnics in Blitar Municipality is to conduct development projects. As exaggerating as it may seem, one interviewee mentioned that Blitar Municipality had been ‘pawned’ to the Chinese ethnics. Politically, there were not many Chinese ethnics who preferred to affiliate themselves with the pro-Mayor political party, but their role were certainly crucial related to the economic supports to the Mayor.

Campaign promises

Based on the gathered information, the campaign promises of the Blitar Mayor was mainly fulfilled. These promises, among others, are free educations and health cares. For the free educations, the municipal government program was not to demand any form of fees and in addition to it, students living in Blitar Municipality were given school supplies. Also, in 2017, a budget was made to provide bicycles to students in junior high schools.

The consequences of these campaign promises was explained in the APBD where the budget for education composed 42% of the total APBD. As for the free health care program, health care service was given for free with ‘claim’ system, this means the patients was initially administered in the health institution by stating that the patients are a member of society insured by the Regional Government Budget. Then, within 2×24 hours, patients’ family must handle the administration procedures, one of which is to manage the Statement Letter of the Poor (SPM)

What must be emphasized here is that the free health care services were only for those who are willing to be treated at Class-3 with its service specifications, this includes that the medications were from the Social Insurance Administrator (BPJS). This health care program from the Regional Government guarantees all medicines (not only the generic ones) and specific treatments such as hemodialysis and surgical operations which, without a doubt, requires doctor’s recommendation. These facts are the examples of the positive sides of clientelism.

Clientelism has always been linked to domination, unequal exchange between patrons and clients, and all sort of negative things. In the context of this study, it proved that in the two regions, both Malang Regency and Blitar Municipality, clientelism activities were able to be identified. Clientelism in Malang Regency was shown during the general elections for the regional leaders, where in Blitar city, clientelism was observed through the giving of positions to the close people of the Mayor. However apparent it may be, the practices of clientelism in Blitar Municipality showed a positive outcome in the form of public services’ improvement during his the Mayor’s governance. APBD for education reaches 46%, the highest in Indonesia. Blitar citizens also showed signs of satisfactions with the services provided by the municipal government. Therefore, this study proves that not all activities related to clientelism impacts negatively.

 

[1]Keefer, 2002

[2]Robinson dan Verdier (2002)

[3]Ibid,

[4]Ibid

[5]Allen, 2012

[6]Ibid

[7]Brinkerhoff dan Glodsmith, 2004

[8] Fukuoka 2013

[9](Aspinall and Sukmajati 2016)

[10](Allen 2015)

[11](Berenschot 2015)

[12]Brinkerhoff dan Glodsmith, 2004

[13] Hasurl Hanif, Op.Cit,,hlm 330

[14] Sumarto, Perlindungan sosial dan klientelisme makna politik bantuan tunaidalam pemilihan umum, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.2014,hlm 27

[15]Jonathan Hopkin, “Klientelisme dan Partai Politik”, dalam Richard S. Katz dan William Crotty (ed.) (Ahmad Asnawi pent.), Handbook Partai Politik (Handbook of Party Politics), Bandung: Nusa Media, 2014, hlm 670

[16]Mukhtar Sarman, Banalitas Kontestasi Politik; Refleksi Pemilu Legislatif 2014 di Kalimantan Selatan, Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2014, hlm 81-82

[17]Hasrul Hanif, Op.Cit, hlm 5

[18]Hasrul Hanif, Op.Cit, hlm 5

[19]Mukhtar Sarman, Op.Cit, hlm 82

[20]Jonathan Hopkin, Op.Cit, hlm 672

[21]Ibid

[22]Hasrul Hanif, Op.Cit, hlm 6

[23]Jonathan Hopkin, Op.Cit, hlm 676

[24]Jonathan Hopkin, Op.Cit, hlm 676

[25]Edward Aspinall, Mada Sukmajati, “Patronase dan Klientelisme dalam Politik Elektoral di Indonesia”, Politik Uang Di Indonesia, Yogyakarta: PolGov, 2014, hlm 4

[26] Hasrul Hanif, Maret 2009, “Politik Klientelisme Baru dan Dilema Demokratisasi di Indonesia”. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Vol. 12, No.3, hlm 330

[27] Jonathan Hopkin, 2006b, “Conceptualingzing Political Clientelism: Political Exchange and Democratic Theory”, Paper presented for APSA annual meeting, Philadelphia, 31 August – 3 Sepetember 2006

[28] Ibid

[29] James Scott, 1972, “Patron-Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia”, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 66, No. 1, hlm 93

[30] I Ketut Putra Erawan, 2008, “Clientelism, Political Survive, and Democratization”, Makalah disampaikan dalam Intensive Short Course for Trainers on Human Rights and Democracy, PSSAT UGM-DEMOS-UiO, 2 – 8 Desember 2008

[31] Allen Hicken, 2011, “Clientelism”, Annual Review of Political Science, hlm 289-310dalam Edward Aspinall dan Mada Sukmajati (ed.), POLITIK UANG DI INDONESIA; Yogyakarta: PolGov, 2015, hlm 4-5

Category: Articles

City Branding Part 1


The city around the world is competing to make the most allure branding. Even famous city like Paris and New York have to promote their branding intensively because of the competitiveness in the tourism sector. Some scholar related the influence of branding, promotion with the significant number of tourist arrival. Many municipalities in Indonesia also try to promote their city by making the appealing branding such as Enjoy Jakarta, Jogja Istimewa, Beautiful Malang, Malang: The Heart of East Java, Majestic Banyuwangi, Sparkling Surabaya, Shining Batu, etc.

In 2015 Indonesia Ministry of National Development make a call for paper. The title of the call for paper is Bappenas International Conference on Best Development and Practices. There are five themes for this competition: Food Security, Energy Security, Maritime, Industry, and Tourism. The themes were related with Nawacita. Nawacita are nine top priorities agenda from Joko Widodo and Yusuf Kalla.  I had chosen the tourism theme for my article. My paper entitles “Best Practices Local Branding Kota Wisata Batu Sebagai Upaya Meningkatkan Perekonomian Kota Batu”. After submitting my article, a few months later the committee send me an email saying that my paper got selected for the oral presentation. From around 200 papers for this theme, they only selected the top five. I was so happy. In short story, I win the competition for tourism. This is the decree from the judge.

SK-Dewan Juri_Konferensi Bappenas-page-001

I always like something related to tourism for the obvious reason because I love traveling. Since then I began to explore the theme of tourism especially local branding. Me and my friend Ratnaningsih Damayanti and Irma Fitriana Ulfah from Governmental Science Department Faculty of Social and Political Science University of Brawijaya, we had conducted some research about the local branding. In 2016 our research entitles “City Branding Kabupaten/Kota di Jawa Timur”. The research conducted in 3 regencies Banyuwangi, Surabaya and Batu municipality. In 2017 We continue our research to “Analisis Perumusan City Branding Kabupaten/Kota di Jawa Timur” the research still conducted in East Java Province but to other regencies which are Malang City, Malang Municipality and Tulungagung Municipality

Furthermore, from areas we had analyzed, we found there are four models in formulating the city branding:

  1. City branding formulated from the bottom; that is to say, public involvement, in this case, is high. The public who has the main role in city branding formulation. The sense of belonging for this type of formulation also high, but the weakness in this type the local government does not immediately respond to make it a policy. The city with this type of branding formulation is Surabaya municipality
  2. City branding formulated from the top; in other words, the local government has the initiative to make the branding, usually the use a professional consultant to prepare it. The good things about this type are local government funded the research and after the select the most prominent branding they usually enacted it immediately. But usually, it takes a long time to internalize in public, in some cases public a bit resistant to the branding because it doesn’t reflect the nor the city. The city with this kind of city branding are: Malang regency, Malang Municipality, Tulungagung regency, Batu regency, Banyuwangi regency
  3. The third model is a combination between the bottom and up. This is a bit unpopular because it can cover the weaknesses of the two models. In this formulation, at the first stage, they use the professional consultant to make some branding alternative, they also open the competition for the public if the public has some good ideas about the branding. In the end, the government makes a public vote for the branding. We found one region for this type it’s Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. The special things about Yogyakarta are they also involved many stakeholders like artist and tourism actor like the representative of hotels, restaurant, etc.
  4. The last model is formulated by the central government. As we know Indonesia tourism branding is Wonderful Indonesia. The branding initiated by The Ministry of Tourism. There is some local branding integrated with wonderful Indonesia. The one got selected with the branding will be promoted as the top tourism destination in Indonesia. And will be promoted in the ministry official website and the advertisement around the world. To be part of the central government branding the local government can propose it to the Ministry of tourism or the Ministry of Tourism can offer some local government to join but they will have to use the branding made by the central government. The city apply this model is Medan municipality

wonderful indonesiabranding

souce: Ministry of Tourism Republic of Indonesia

This formulation for local branding process models will continue to develop along with the rapid growth in branding and tourism sector. And we will continue our work in local branding.

Category: Articles

My Google Scholar


I just open my google scholar and found out a few articles I had written in the previous years.

Source: https://scholar.google.com.tw/citations?user=yNmAqscAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao

That is the link for my google scholar hope you can find it useful.

I wish in the next few years the number of articles will be increased.

 

Category: Articles


Artikel ini dibuat pada tahun 2016 kemudian diterbitkan oleh Jurnal JTrap (Jurnal Teori dan Riset Administrasi Publik). Tulisan dibuat bersama Mayuko Galuh Mahardika.  Berikut ini saya lampirkan pdf dari tulisan kami. Semoga bermanfaat.

INOVASI PROGRAM LAHIR PROCOT PULANG BAWA AKTA

DI KABUPATEN BANYUWANGI

Restu Karlina Rahayu, Mayuko Galuh Mahardika

Program Studi Ilmu Pemerintahan Universitas Brawijaya Malang

restu.karlina@ub.ac.id

mayukogm64@gmail.com

 Abstrak

Banyak program inovatif yang dilahirkan pada masa kepemimpinan Abdullah Azwar Anas, Bupati Banyuwangi Jawa Timur, seperti tagline sunrise of java, triangle diamond, Banyuwangi Festival, Jamban Sehat, E-Hospital, Banyuwangi Cyber Village, Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta dan program inovatif lainnya. Penulis akan fokus dalam menjelaskan program yang terakhir yaitu Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta. Program ini pernah mendapatkan penghargaan dari Kementerian Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi pada tahun 2015 sebagai salah satu inovasi pelayanan publik terbaik di Indonesia. Terhitung sejak tahun 2013 sampai 2015 sudah 15.675 lembar akta kelahiran yang diterbitkan oleh pemerintah melalui program ini. Program ini lahir atas keprihatinan Azwar Anas karena banyaknya anak di Banyuwangi yang tidak memiliki akta kelahiran. Dan setelah seorang anak lahir tidak langsung otomatis mendapatkan akta kelahiran. Padahal akta kelahiran adalah dokumen dasar yang akan menjadi landasan didapatkannya hak sebagai warga negara.

Kata kunci: inovasi, reformasi birokrasi, akta kelahiran, lahir procot bawa akta

 Abstract

Many innovative programs are born during the leadership of Abdullah Azwar Anas as Head of Banyuwangi Regent Government of East Java, such as the tagline sunrise of java, triangle diamond, Banyuwangi Festival, Healthy Jamban, E-Hospital, Banyuwangi Cyber Village, Born Procot Returning Carry Deed and other innovative programs. The author will focus in explaining the last program that is Born Procot Returning Bring the Deed. The program was awarded by the Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucracy Reform in 2015 as one of the best public service innovations in Indonesia. From 2013 to 2015, about 15,675 birth certificates have been issued by the government through this program. This program was born of concern Azwar Anas because many children in Banyuwangi who do not have birth certificate. And after a child is born indirectly automatically get a birth certificate. Whereas the birth certificate is the basic document that will be the basis of the acquisition of the right as a citizen.

 Keywords: innovation, bureaucratic reform, birth certificate, birth procot bring deed

I.                    PENDAHULUAN

Kabupaten Banyuwangi merupakan daerah yang terletak di paling ujung timur pulau Jawa Provinsi Jawa Timur. Daerah ini merupakan wilayah paling luas di Provinsi Jawa Timur. Hal ini bisa menjadi kelebihan dan kekurangan bagi pemerintah daerah. Kelebihannya adalah potensi sumber daya alam yang luar biasa. Sedangkan kekurangannya adalah luasnya wilayah menjadi pekerjaan rumah tersendiri bagi pemerintah daerah dalam memberikan pelayanan yang baik, optimal serta merata bagi seluruh penduduknya. Pemerintah daerah secara tidak langsung dituntut untuk lebih inovatif dalam memberikan pelayanan publik untuk mengatasi kendala-kendala luasnya wilayah yang harus dikelola.

Otonomi daerah telah menumbuhkan semangat kompetisi antar daerah untuk dapat menjadi daerah yang lebih baik. Bagi dari segi pelayanan, kenyamanan, keamanan, ketertiban dan daya saing investasi. Inovasi merupakan salah satu jalan untuk memaksimalkan pelayanan serta meningkatkan kesejahteraan rakyat. Keberhasilan pemerintah daerah dalam menyelenggarakan pelayanan salah satu indikatornya adalah berbagai program yang inovatif. Program inovatif ini tidak jarang lahir dari seorang pemimpin yang memiliki kepekaaan terhadap permasalahan-permasalahan rakyatnya, bukan sekedar pencitraan untuk mendapatkan sorotan untuk memenuhi hasrat berkuasa.

Kabupaten Banyuwangi kini menjadi sorotan publik atas prestasi dan kemajuannya yang cukup pesat. Hal ini tentunya juga atas dasar kepiawaian kepala daerah. Abdullah Azwar Anas mulai memimpin Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada tahun 2010. Banyak program inovatif yang dilahirkan pada masa kepemimpinannya seperti tagline sunrise of java, triangle diamond, Banyuwangi Festival, Jamban Sehat, E-Hospital, Banyuwangi Cyber Village, Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta dan program inovatif lain guna meningkatkan kehidupan masyarakat yang lebih layak.

Program Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta merupakan program yang pernah mendapatkan penghargaan dari Kementerian Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi pada tahun 2015 sebagai salah satu inovasi pelayanan publik terbaik di Indonesia. Terhitung sejak tahun 2013 sampai 2015 sudah 15.675 lembar akta kelahiran yang diterbitkan oleh pemerintah melalui program ini. Program ini lahir atas keprihatinan Abdullah Azwar Anas karena banyak anak di Banyuwangi yang tidak memiliki akta kelahiran setelah anak lahir. Padahal akta kelahiran adalah dokumen dasar yang akan menjadi landasan untuk mendapatkan hak sebagai warga negara. Program Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta salah satu langkah pendorong reformasi birokrasi. Birokrasi harus mampu memberikan pelayanan yang baik dan cepat, sehingga kebutuhan masyarakat dapat segera terpenuhi. Berdasarkan latar belakang, maka rumusan masalah penelitian diruuskan sbb: “Bagaimana Inovasi Kultural pada program Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta di Kabupaten Banyuwangi?

II.                    METODE PENELITIAN

Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif, yaitu suatu metode penelitian yang menggambarkan semua data atau keadaan subjek/objek penelitian kemudian dianalisis dan dibandingkan berdasarkan kenyataan yang sedang berlangsung pada saat ini dan kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pemecahan masalah (Widi (2010). Jadi metode deskriptif kualitatif adalah suatu metode penelitian yang menggambarkan Program Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta tanpa menggunakan ukuran-ukuran kuantitas secara sistematis dan tidak berusaha membuat generalisasi.

Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui tiga cara yaitu: a. Wawancara yang digunakan adalah wawancara tidak terstruktur, yang dilakukan secara mengalir seperti percakapan sehari-hari tetapi disesuaikan dengan keadaan informan. b. Observasi merupakan teknik pengumpulan data yang umum dikenal dengan pengamatan langsung. c. Studi pustaka, dimaksudkan untuk memperoleh berbagai referensi atau dokumen yang relevan dengan penelitian. Beberapa dokumen itu diantaranya; dokumen administrasi Kabupaten Banyuwangi, situs resmi pemerintah daerah dan provinsi JawaTimur dan buku-buku yang terkait inovasi daerah

Data penelitian dianalisis melalui empat tahapan sesuai dengan pendapat Sutopo (2002) yaitu: Pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan teknik wawancara, observasi, dan studi pustaka. Reduksi data, data yang telah terkumpul kemudian diseleksi, difokuskan dan diabstraksi. Data yang relevan dengan penelitian dan memisahkan data yang tidak relevan. Proses ini penting sehingga penulis dapat menarik simpulan yang dapat menjawab rumusan masalah. Data ditampilkan secara sistematis sesuai alur pikir yang telah dibuat dan konsisten berdasarkan rumusan masalah. Penyajian data dimulai dari awal mula munculnya inovasi di Kabupaten Banyuwangi, faktor-faktor yang memperngaruhi inovasi, dan dampak inovasi bagi masyarakat. Tahap berikutnya penarikan simpulan dan verifikasi. Setelah penyajian data, dilakukan intepretasi, dianalisis menggunakan kerangka teoritis dan hasil observasi langsung penulis kemudian menarik sebuah kesimpulan. Proses verifikasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode triangulasi sehingga simpulan data dipertanggungjawabkan dan data yang ditampilkan lebih valid.

III.                  HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN

1. Profil Kabupaten Banyuwangi

Topografi Banyuwangi yang unik didukung oleh kekuatan karakter masyarakat multikultur. Ada tiga elemen masyarakat yang secara dominan membentuk stereotype karakter Banyuwangi yaitu Jawa Mataraman, Madura – Pandalungan (Tapal Kuda) dan Using. Masyarakat Banyuwangi dikenal sangat terbuka terhadap pengaruh dari luar dan teradaptasi terhadap pergaulan multi etnis. Hal ini menyebabkan dalam perkembangannya hingga saat ini penduduk Banyuwangi terdiri atas berbagai etnis dan berbagai ragam kelompok masyarakat dari berbagai daerah. Tipologi etnis yang berkembang di Kabupaten Banyuwangi antara lain Etnis Madura, Melayu, Cina, Arab, Bali, Jawa dan Using. Suku Using adalah penduduk asli Banyuwangi dan penduduk mayoritas di beberapa kecamatan di Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Suku Using merupakan perpaduan budaya dan tradisi yang ada di Banyuwangi.

Persebaran tiga entitas ini bisa ditelisik dengan karakter wilayah secara geografis yaitu Jawa Mataraman lebih banyak mendominasi daerah pegunungan yang banyak hutan seperti wilayah Tegaldlimo, Purwoharjo, Bangorejo dan Tegalsari. Sedangkan masyarakat Madura lebih dominan di daerah gersang dan berdekatan dengan pantai karena mata pencaharian utama adalah nelayan dan petani seperti di Kecamatan Wongsorjo, sebagian kecil di Kecamatan Kalipuro, Glenmore dan Muncar. Sementara masyarakat Using sendiri dominan di wilayah subur di sekitar Banyuwangi kota, Giri, Glagah, Kabat, Rogojampi, Songgon, Singojuruh, Cluring dan Genteng.

Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi memiliki beberapa tempat pelayanan kesehatan dan rumah sakit. Rumah sakit yang ada antara lain: RSUD Blambangan, RSUD Genteng, Rumah Sakit Islam, RSI Fatimah, RSU Al Huda dan lain-lainnnya. Selain Rumah sakit juga tersedia fasilitas Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas yang ada disetiap kecamatan. Jumlah fasilitas kesehatan di Kecamatan Banyuwangi seperti yang terlihat pada tabel 1.

Tabel 1 Jumlah Fasilitas Kesehatan Kabupaten Banyuwangi 2009

No. Fasilitas Kesehatan Jumlah
1. Rumah Sakit Umum 2
2. Rumah Sakit Swasta 9
3. Puskesmas 45
4. Puskesmas Pembantu 100
5. Puskesmas Keliling 30

Sumber: Banyuwangi Dalam Angka 2010

2. Kultur Pelayanan Birokrasi di Daerah

Otonomi daerah secara tidak langsung menuntut pemerintah untuk lebih bekerja secara efektif dan optimal dalam menjalankan roda pemerintahan baik di pusat dan maupun di daerah. Dengan adanya otonomi daerah pada era demokrasi konseptualiasi makna dari rakyat, oleh rakyat, untuk rakyat semakin menonjol, termasuk dalam memperoleh pelayanan publik dari pemerintah.

Pada sistem otonomi daerah kini, seluruh jajaran perangkat daerah merupakan bagian yang saling berkesinambungan dan harus bekerjasama unutuk mencapai tujuan bersama yaitu untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat. Pentingnya reformasi birokrasi juga menitikberatkan pada usaha minimalisir adanya ego sektoral dari masing – masing SKPD, semua harus mau bekerja secara bersama dan saling membantu.

Implementasi program lahir procot pulang bawa akta ini melibatkan berbagai sektor untuk dapat bekerja secara bersama untuk melakukan pelayanan yang cepat dan gratis ini. Terdapat 45 puskesmas, 2 Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah, serta 5 Rumah Sakit milik Swasta yang telah menyanggupi untuk bekerjasama dengan Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Setelah kesanggupan pelayanan dari tenaga medis, maka selanjutnya Dinas kependudukan dan catatan sipil derta Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Banyuwangi menjadi SKPD yang pasti terlibat dalam program ini. Untuk akomodasi pelayanan pengantaran, Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi bekerjasama dengan PT POS yang terdapat di wilayah Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Dengan banyaknya sektor yang terlibat, secara tidak langsung menuntut setiap sektor untuk bekerjasama satu sama lain memberikan pelayanan yang cepat dan gratis dalam pembuatan akte kelahiran anak. Hal seperti ini akan menghilangkan kultur atau budaya ego sektoral yang kerap terjadi di instansi pemerintahan daerah.

3. Inovasi Program

Program “Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta” lahir melalui beberapa proses. Pertama, adanya kewenangan pemerintah daerah dalam membuat kebijakan untuk urusan rumah tangga daerah yang dimanfaatkan Bupati Banyuwangi untuk mengoptimalkan pelayanan guna meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat Banyuwangi. Pada tahun 2013 pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi mengeluarkan Keputusan Bupati Banyuwangi Nomor 188/558/KEP/429.011/2013 tentang Penetapan quick wins. Penetapan quick wins reformasi birokrasi bertujuan untuk memperbaiki sistem dan mekanisme kerja serta bagian utama dari peran, tugas, fungsi dan karakteristik Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi, sehingga manfaatnya dapat dirasakan secara cepat oleh masyarakat. Dengan adanya kebijakan bupati ini, diharapkan birokrasi dapat bekerja secara cepat tanggap dalam melakukakan pelayanan terhadap masyarakat, sehingga tak ada lagi sikap aparat birokrasi menggunakan prinsip “kalau bisa dipersulit kenapa dipermudah” pada jajaran pemerintahan Kabupaten Banyuwangi.

Komitmen pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi dalam penetapan quick wins reformasi birokrasi ini secara tidak langsung meminimalisir bahkan menghentikan ego sektoral pada jajaran SKPD Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Adapun jajaran SKPD yang menjadi target atau sasaran sebagai unsur pelaksana yaitu Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil, Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Banyuwangi, Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Blambangan, dan Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Genteng.

Quick wins reformasi birokrasi selanjutnya melahirkan program inovasi yang sering disebut dengan Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta (LPPBA). Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta merupakan program inovasi berbasis IT dimana dalam program tersebut dimaksudkan bahwa setiap bayi yang baru saja lahir, pada saatnya dibawa pulang kerumah bayi tersebut sudah memiliki akta kelahiran. Program ini muncul atas dasar keprihatinan Abdullah Azwar Anas saat menegrathui fenomena banyaknya anak yang belum mendapatkan akta kelahiran di Kabupaten Banyuwangi.

Akta kelahiran merupakan dokumen dasar yang akan menjadi landasan untuk mendapatkan hak sebagai warga negara, namun faktanya yang umum terjadi di lapangan bahwa seorang anak baru lahir tidak langsung otomatis mendapatkan akta kelahiran. Perlindungan anak telah diatur pada UU 23 tahun 2002, seerta dalam UUD 1945 kapasitas seorang anak yang lahir telah diatur jelas dalam pasal 28 B ayat 2 yang berbunyi “setiap anak berhak atas kelangsungan hidup, tumbuh, dan berkembang, serta berhak atas perlindungan dari kekerasan dan diskriminasi”. Dengan adanya Program Inovasi Lahir procot pulang bawa akta maka seorang anak lahir akan langsung otomatis mendapatkan akta kelahiran ketika orang tua telah melengkapi atau menyiapkan persyaratannya.

Bayi yang lahir di puskesmas ataupun di Rumah Sakit Daerah maupun Swasta yang telah bekerjasama dengan pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi, orang tua dihimbau untuk mempersiapkan segala keperluan administrasi seperti Buku Nikah atau akta kawin, KTP orang tua bayi, menyiapkan nama bayi. Ketika bayi sudah lahir maka puskesmas atau rumah sakit dimana bayi dilahirkan akan melengkapi berkas tersebut dan menscan untuk selanjutnya data dikirimkan ke dinas pendudukan dan catatan sipil secara online.

Setelah data masuk ke sistem dispendukcapil Kabupaten Banyuwangi, selanjutnya masing-masing bagian yang telah diberikan tanggung jawab untuk mengurus akta kelahiran dan kartu keluarga akan segera memproses pada hari itu juga dan dapat segera terbit. Setelah proses pembuatan KK dan Akta kelahiran selesai diproses oleh dinas kependudukan dan catatan sipil, selanjutnya KK dan Akta Kelahiran tersebut akan dikirim ke Puskesmas dan Rumah sakit dimana bayi dilahirkan melalui jasa pos untuk selanjutnya dapat dibawa pulang oleh pemilik akta kelahiran.

lahir procot pulang bawa akta

Sumber: http://dispendukcapil.banyuwangikab.go.id

Hubungan kerjasama kelembagaan yang baik sangat dibutuhkan dalam proses penyelenggaraan program yang melibatkan banyak sektor ini. Kesadaran atas keutamaan pemberian pelayanan terbaik kepada masyarakat sangat penting ditanamkan kepada aparatur utamanya yang bertugas secara teknis di lapangan. Program lahir procot pulang bawa akta ini memberikan pengaruh dan kesadaran tentang sistem birokrasi yang saling terkait satu sama lain. Sampai dengan bulan Desember 2014 akta kelahiran secara Online telah mampu menjaring 10.633 akta kelahiran yang terdiri dari pelayanan Online lewat puskesmas dan Rumah Sakit sebanyak 7.482 akta kelahiran dan yang melalui Kecamatan sebanyak 3.151 akta. Sedangkan pada bulan Januari hingga Februari tahun 2015, pelayanan online telah mencapai 5.684 akta. Capaian tersebut tentunya dapat menunjukkan akan keseriusan dalam menjalankan program ini serta keseriusan setiap sektor yang terlibat untuk bekerjasama dengan baik dalam memberikan pelayanan prima terhadap masyarakat. Dalam pelaksanaan program ini, masyarakat tidak dipungut biaya karena program ini menggunakan dana APBD.

Kedua, luasnya wilayah yang menjadi kawasan pemerintahan Kabupaten Banyuwangi tentunya akan didominasi oleh masyarakat pedesaan yang masih menjunjung tinggi nilai budaya dan unsur adat tradisional yang dimiliki. Hal seperti ini tentunya merupakan tantangan bagi pemerintah dalam menjalankan setiap kebijakan yang dibuat. Dengan adanya berbagai program inovasi yang di inisiasi oleh Abdullah Azwar Anas sebagai kepala daerah Kabupaten Banyuwangi tentang pelayanan terhadap masyarakat, membuat masyarakat menjadi kagum akan sosok pemimpin daerahnya serta menjadikan Abdullah Azwar Anas memiliki legitimasi yang cukup tinggi dari masyarakat yang telah dipimpinnya. Berbagai inovasi dan prestasi yang dimiliki oleh Bupati Banyuwangi ini menumbuhkan ketertarikan tersendiri bagi media massa untuk menyorot setiap pergerakan yang dilakukan oleh kepala daerah dengan tagline sunrise of java ini. Banyak penghargaan pula yang didapat dari media massa atas kinerja dan inovasinya selama ini.

Media sangat berperan dalam keberlangsungan suatu program yang dijalankan, dengan adanya bantuan media dalam memperkenalkan suatu program, maka akan semakin cepat program tersebut dikenal oleh masyarakat. Jika kata kunci Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta ditulis dalam mesin pencari google, maka akan muncul 1.150 hasil pencarian yang terdiri atas berbagai berita atau artikel yang memuat tentang program ini. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa media sangat berperan dan bergerak cepat dalam memperkenalkan suatu produk sehingga program inovasi dapat dikenal khalayak umum sehingga mempermudah proses sosialisasi atas jalannya suatu program.

Ketiga, dalam membuat program inovasi, sudah seharusnya suatu program dibuat unutuk menyelesaikan permasalahan yang sedang terjadi. Program Inovasi pelayanan publik Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta merupakan suatu program yang diinisiasi oleh pemerintah daerah Kabupaten Banyuwangi untuk mengatasi permasalahan atas sulitnya atau lamanya proses pembuatan akta kelahiran. Adanya landasan dasar untuk kepentingan rakyat dalam pembuatan program ini, maka program ini dapat diterima dengan baik bahkan antusias oleh masyarakat Kabupaten Banyuwangi, sehingga dalam implementasinya tidak menemukan banyak kendala. Masyarakatpun menyambut secara antusias program ini. Banyaknya inovasi yang lahir di Kabupaten Banyuwangi memberikan citra baru bagi daerah ini yaitu kota inovatif. Banyuwangi berhasil menonjolkan dirinya melalui pelayanan publik. Berbagai program inovatif yang dilaksanakan Kabupaten Banyuwangi membuat daerah ini mampu bersaing dengan daerah inovatif lainnya seperti Kota Bandung, Kabupaten Banteng, Kota Solo.

Citra positif ini tentu saja menjadi modal bagi pemerintah daerah untuk semakin dikenal secara nasional maupun internasional. Modal yang sudah didapatkan menjadi motivasi untuk mempertahankan prestasi dan menjalankannya secara konsisten. Kepala daerah perlu membangun sistem untuk mempertahankan pelayanan publik yang baik. Sehingga pada saatnya nanti kepala daerah turun jabatan, pelayanan publik tidak kembali kendur.

Dampak lainnya dari aset merek ini adalah munculnya rasa kepemilikan masyarakat terhadap daerah. Dalam banyak momen penulis menemukan betapa masyarakat Banyuwangi bangga akan daerahnya. Masyarakat dengan lancarnya menjelaskan berbagai inovasi di daerah mereka. Apalagi program lahir procot pulang bawa akta bukanlah satu-satunya program inovatif di daerah ini. Masyarakat yang bangga adalah masyarakat yang bahagia. Masyarakat yang bahagia akan menciptakan lingkungan yang aman, nyaman, sejahtera. Sehingga tujuan dan cita-cita luhur bangsa ini dalam alinea kedua pembukaan UUD 1945 “Dan perjuangan pergerakan kemerdekaan Indonesia telah sampailah kepada saat yang berbahagia dengan selamat sentosa mengantarkan rakyat Indonesia ke depan pintu gerbang kemerdekaan negara Indonesia, yang merdeka, bersatu, berdaulat, adil dan makmur” dapat terwujud.

IV. PENUTUP

1. Simpulan

Pelimpahan kewenangan dari pusat ke daerah diikuti dengan adanya pelimpahan kepercayaan terhadap pemerintah daerah untuk dapat mengelola urusan rumah tangganya sendiri. Adanya otonomi daerah menuntut pemerintah daerah untuk mengoptimalkan pelayanan di daerahnya guna pencapaian kesejahteraan masyarakat yang lebih cepat dan efektif.

Program lahir procot pulang bawa akta, diharapkan dapat mendorong birokrasi bekerja lebih cepat dan tanggap dalam melakukakan pelayanan terhadap masyarakat, tak ada lagi moto birokrasi “kalau bisa dipersulit kenapa dipermudah”. Program ini terbukti direpon positif oleh masyarakat dan memberikan dampak positif baik secara administrative, kultural maupun citra.

Hubungan kerjasama kelembagaan yang baik sangat dibutuhkan dalam proses penyelenggaraan program yang melibatkan banyak sektor ini. Kesadaran atas keutamaan pemberian pelayanan terbaik kepada masyarakat sangat penting ditanamkan kepada aparatur utamanya yang bertugas secara teknis dilapangan. Program lahir procot pulang bawa akta ini memberikan pengaruh dan kesadaran tentang sistem birokrasi yang saling terkait satu sama lain. Pemerintah daerah harus dapat membaca apa yang sedang menjadi kebutuhan paling mendesak pada daerahnya dan selanjutnta membuat program yang inovatif untuk menjawab dan memecahkan permasalahan yang ada di daerahnya dengan memanfaatkan segala potensi yang telah dimiliki.

2. Saran

Program inovasi pelayanan publik Lahir Ceprot Pulang Bawa Akta telah berjalan cukup baik, beberapa saran yang ingin penulis sampaikan untuk pengoptimalan program sebagai berikut : Pertama, sumber daya manusia merupakan salah satu kendala dari keberlangsungan program ini. Perlu adanya pengoptimalan pada sektor SDM guna meningkatkan mutu kerja pada masing-masing SKPD yang terkait dengan program ini. Pemenuhan sumber daya manusia yang dimaksud adalah dengan melakukan perekrutan aparatur yang sesuai dengan bidang keahliannya, misalkan dalam hal IT untuk petrugas teknis dibagian sistem online program ini. Kedua, Sosialisasi dibutuhkan untuk menyadarkan masyarakat akan keselamatan dalam proses persalinan. Dengan menjanjikan adanya pembuatan akte kelahiran langsung jadi dapat digunakan sebagai cara menarik perhatian masyarakat agar melakukan proses persalinan di Rumah Sakit atau Puskesmas. Ketiga, perlu dibentuknya tim pengawasan program baik pengawasan pelaksanaan pelayanan juga pengawasan pemerataan program apakah sudah menyentuh masyarakat di daerah pinggiran Kabupaten Banyuwangi.

Daftar pustaka

Dwiyanto, Agus 2011. Mengembalikan Kepercayaan Publik Melalui Reformasi Birokrasi. Jakarta, Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Keputusan_Bupati Banyuwangi No. 188/558/Kep/429.011/2013 tentang_ Penetapan _Quick_Wins_Reformasi Birokrasi Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi.

Nurmandi, Ahmad dan Umar Priyono. 2006:Implementasi Knowledge Management Pada Organisasi Publik. Yogyakarta. Sinergi Publishing.

Sedarmayanti. 2010. Reformasi Administrasi Publik, Reformasi Birokrasi, dan Kepemimpinan Masa Depan (Mewujudkan Pelayanan Prima dan Kepemerintahan yang Baik). Bandung: Refika Aditama

Syafii, Inu Kencana. 2003. Kepemimpinan Pemerintahan Indonesia. Bandung: Refika Aditama

Wasesa, Silih Agung. 2011. Political Branding dan Public Relations. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Widi, Restu Kartiko (2010). Asas Metodologi Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu

Web: http://dispendukcapil.banyuwangikab.go.id/page/news/pendaftaran-akta-kelahiran-secara-on-line diakses pada hari Senin 24 Oktober 2016 pukul 22.43.

Source: Lahir Procot Pulang Bawa Akta

Tourism Branding in ASEAN Countries


ABSTRACT

We know ASEAN motto is one vision, one identity, one community. For the purpose of ASEAN tourism, ASEAN using the tagline feel the warmth. Not only ASEAN trying to promote the tourism in the community but also each country in ASEAN has their own tourism slogan. Namely Brunei (Brunei, The Green Heart of Borneo, The Kingdom of Unexpected Treasures), Cambodia (Kingdom of Wonder), Indonesia (Wonderful Indonesia), Laos (Simply Beautiful), Malaysia (Malaysia Truly Asia), Myanmar (Mystical Myanmar), Philippines (It’s More Fun in the Philippines), Singapore (Your Singapore), Thailand (Amazing Thailand, Always Amazes You), Vietnam (The Timeless Charm). According to Kotler (2008) brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller of a group the of seller and to differentiate them from those of competitors. In 1965 Association for Better New York launched campaign “The Big Apple”. It was J FitzGerald a reporter in Morning Telegraph who started using the word The Big Apple in 1920. After the campaign New York had shown the significant increasing tourist number. Now days there are a lot of cities in famous country also using the branding too promote it tourism. Not only in developing country but also in develop country such as France, England, USA and others. This paper is trying to explain how city branding has been developing in almost all ASEAN country. But we will focusing on city branding in Indonesia. Literature study is used for this research.

Key words: branding, tourism, Asean

1. INTRODUCTION

In Today’s Globalized world, cities, regions, and nations compete ever more intensely in attracting the visitor. There are many interesting tourist attractions and places worth visiting in ASEAN. Places such as Borobudur, Bali, Merlion Park, Hanoi, Pattaya Beach, and Angkor Watt are one of favorite tourist destinations for foreigners who visit ASEAN. ASEAN countries have similar characteristics of natural resources. Most of ASEAN countries are gifted with a lot of beautiful view of mountains and beaches. Natural resources aren’t the only reason why so many foreign tourists love to visit ASEAN, but united ASEAN countries also have similar wealth culture. Tour of pagoda and temples become one of the attractions for religious tourism available in all ASEAN countries.

Interestingly, the efforts to promote the tourism in each ASEAN country have been carried out since 1970 when Indonesia introduced a slogan of “Indonesia, there is more to it than Bali”. Since then, each ASEAN country such as Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand keep competing with Indonesia to attract more foreign tourists. This tourism competition is then realized by ASEAN. By the end of 2012, ASEAN established ASEAN tourism forum and launched a campaign of “Southeast Asia, Feel the Warmth.” This collective branding has been realized by one of the researchers.

“Brand awareness of ASEAN as a holiday destination is low. When consumers think of ASEAN they are more likely to think of it as a political grouping or economic region than as a holiday destination. (This) may be traced to a number of underlying issues such as (1) a lack of sufficient and guaranteed funding to enable a branding campaign to take place and (2) a lack of marketing strategy and plan based on consumer and trade research and endorsed by relevant government stakeholders and the industry.

This article will try to describe the tourism branding that will be done by each country. When the branding campaign is launched and what is the impact it gives to the tourism in ASEAN countries after the launching of tourism branding. Furthermore, this article will try to observe the branding offered by ASEAN as one of the parts of the campaign in order to collectively attract the tourists. Since the writer comes from Indonesia and is currently living in Indonesia, this article will explain more and provide data about Indonesia.

2. RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHODOLOGY

In recent years, more ASEAN countries are competing in using city branding. Reviewing the city branding is an interesting study to do. Comparing tourism branding between ASEAN countries has resulted in a research question that is “how far tourism branding is able to affect the tourists’ interest in visiting visit the country?” This paper is a result of preliminary research. It can be said that this research needs to be continued and it has not done perfectly. This research also uses the literature study. Literature study is a study conducted by investigating references relevant to this research. Data collection by comparing the website of each Asian country that promoted tourism. The website is the government’s official website

City Branding

According to Kotler, brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or service of the seller groups and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Brand is usually given by a company to a product that they offer to the buyer/consumer. Destination branding or place branding is a strategy on how to promote a region or city. According to Morgan et al3 there are many ways that can be used in order to alter an image of a region such as advertising, direct marketing, personal selling, website, brochures, event organizer, filmmakers, destination marketing organization, and journalist.

According to Ali Hasan4 brand is a tool to identify a product, service, people or place that appear in such a way that the buyer or user feels relevant to it. Unique added value should be in accordance with the consumer needs. Furthermore, Ali Hasan has stated that brand building is implemented to create an influence to the public opinion, and rebranding is sometimes needed for region with drastic environmental changes due to disaster or disaster caused by accidental human action. Branding of a destination is very necessary to improve the tourist destination and to increase the image of a city or country.

Philip Kotler and Nancy Lee have introduced a marketing concept in business practice to enter the public sector. In Indonesia, this concept is pioneered by Hermawan Kartajaya. Hermawan introduced a very famous PDB triangle of positioning, differentiation and brand. Hermawan is well known as consultant who has helped various regencies/cities in Indonesia to create their own brand. The question is that why a city needs a brand like a company? According to Yananda and Salamah5 there are two reasons why a city needs an image. The first reason is because of political entity and the second reason is economic factor. Yananda and Salamah further explained it as follows:

As a centre of economic growth, a city should be able to attract business actors and investors to develop a business and invest their capital. A city should also be able to attract the tourists to visit and spend their money. As a political entity, a city is obligated to do a public diplomacy and support the promotion of a product it produces.

The official campaign launched by the government of New York City was carried out in 1977 by William S. Doyle by asking for advertising company namely Wells Rich Greene. A graphic designer named Milton Glaser made “I Love New York” logo. Meanwhile, its marketing strategy was delivered by Wells Rich Greene. This campaign proved to be successful with rising tourism revenue of 1.6 billion USD. The licensed use of “I ♥ New York” contributed to 1.83 billion USD in 2011 and 1.5 billion USD in 2010. The branding not only serves to attract the tourist but also to be the city branding attached to this day. It is expected that the city branding will attach to the city image in which New York City is a city worthy of being loved by its citizens, as it is able to create conducive working atmosphere and comfortable daily life.

Myanmar is a country that has been led by junta military for decades. In 1996 Myanmar launched a campaign of “Visit Myanmar 1996”. This campaign was opposed by NGOs in Myanmar. Tourism has proven to increase the economic growth in Myanmar. However, the rapid growth in Myanmar has given negative impact of forcing the residents to be relocated to a village for the benefit of the tourist. Several historical sites were damaged due to infrastructure development. Thus, the NGOs persuade and invite the tourist to not visit Myanmar until it becomes a democratic state. Then in 2013, Myanmar announced its latest campaign titled, “Let the Journey Begin”.

The creative thinking behind the ‘Let the Journey Begin’ slogan was to expresses Myanmar’s current situation as well as acknowledging a wish to make progress after a period of isolation. There is also evidence of Myanmar delivering counter message to the negative stereotype . As the developers of the brand admitted, they wanted to focus on Myanmar’s rich cultural heritage, because people were just not aware what the country had to offer.

The branding was designed by Irish international marketing firm called Image Diplomacy (iD) and it was launched in the World Economic Forum on East Asia aired by BBC world. There were around 70 taglines formulated by iD before deciding on the new campaign.

City Branding in ASEAN Countries

In this part, the author will try to expose the campaign promoted by each ASEAN countries. As described in the methodology section that this study is a preliminary study. This study only compares the tagline of the official government website.

1. Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam started its campaign in 2014 with “The Green Heart of Borneo.” Brunei uses more than one tagline and started introducing “The Kingdom of Unexpected Treasures.” Located in Borneo Island along with Malaysia and Indonesia, Brunei used eco-tourism destination as its tourism approach. The promotion was introduced in the form of family trip packages. The goal is to introduce the beauty of Brunei that has not been widely communicated by people. So that families and children will love the nature more.

2. Cambodia

Angkor Wat is a superior tourism of Cambodia. Most of the beauty of Cambodia can be seen through box office movie played by Angelina Jolie which is based on Tom Rider video game. 50% tourists who visit Cambodia will come to Angkor Wat. It is not surprising if Angkor Wat becomes the tourism icon in Cambodia. Cambodia inaugurated its tourism promotion in 2011. Cambodia chose the tagline “Kingdom of Wonder” due to the high number of temples there.

3. Laos

Not much different with Cambodia, Laos also launched its tourism campaign in 2012 with “Simply Beautiful”. Laos started promoting its annual festival due to its richness. This festival is related to the annual cycle of rice plant season. This festival not only relates to harvesting period but also the majority of religion adopted by Laos’ community. Therefore, it is very common for them to perform rituals before the harvesting season. This is part of acculturism between culture and religion.

4. Malaysia

In 1999, Malaysia started its campaign with “Malaysia Truly Asia.”. Slightly different with other ASEAN country campaigns that aim at family, Malaysia aims at the corporate market. Thus, Malaysia built many infrastructure and facilities for MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitions/events). This campaign is quite successful and Malaysia gained a significant amount of tourists. Malaysia rank in number 1 as ASEAN country with the highest number of visitors.

5. Myanmar

Myanmar is known as a conflict-ridden country. After the prolonged military coup, Myanmar started to improve its image in the world. In 2011, Myanmar promoted “Mystical Myanmar.” However, this branding was considered to be unsuccessful due to low interest of foreign tourists. In the end, Myanmar started its rebranding in 2013 and launched “Let the Journey Begin.” Through this campaign, it seems that Myanmar wanted to reduce the negative stereotypes inherent in Myanmar over the years. This campaign focused on the cultural wealth owned by Myanmar and this campaign was considered to be successful comparing to the first campaign. The number of tourists visiting Myanmar had increased rapidly and the tourism growth of Myanmar rank in the first position in ASEAN.

6. Philippines

“It’s More Fun in the Philippines” was introduced in 2012 to replace “WOW Philippines.” Philippines has been recognized by the world through its magnificent beaches. Philippines used hospitality approach to the tourists. Providing good tourism service and experience from its people’s hospitality. Affordable price becomes one of its bargaining power of Philippines. Citizen of Philippines also respond friendly and honestly to the tourists.

7. Singapore

Singapore launched “Your Singapore” on March 5, 2010 and it is the evolution from “Uniquely Singapore” which became the brand from 2004 to 2009. Singapore focused on the service such as dining, shopping, natural and cultural attractions, and mix-and-match of multiple experiences. Singapore realizes that, as the smallest country in ASEAN, it will be difficult to compete with other ASEAN countries that have more natural resources. Therefore, Singapore focused on Global Financial Centre and start building a lot of artificial tourism infrastructure. Finally, Singapore is able to build an image as the financial center in ASEAN to compete with Malaysia.

8. Thailand

Thailand is one of the countries that often changes its branding. Every two years Thailand promotes its newest tagline. The recent tourism tagline of Thailand is “Amazing Thailand, Always Amazes You.” This campaign is the supplement or part of the “Discover Thainess” campaign. “Amazing Thailand” is considered as one of the successful taglines in ASEAN. The number of tourists in Thailand is relatively stable because Thailand becomes one of favorite destinations in ASEAN today.

9. Vietnam

Vietnam launched “From Hidden Charm to Timeless Charm” campaign in 2012. The basic value of the Vietnamese tourism brand is “time,” “intensity,” “mystery,” and “commitment,” Developing diversified tourism forms such as sea-island, culture spirit, community-based tourism, ecotourism, adventure sports tourism, and sightseeing countryside. Vietnam has to compete with Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Philippines, and Indonesia. Thus Vietnam wants to introduce its natural resources that are capable to compete with other ASEAN countries.

10. Indonesia

In 1970-1980 Indonesia promoted “Indonesia, there is more to it than Bali,” “Indonesia, Bali and Beyond”, and “Indonesia, Bali plus Nine”. After that, Indonesia introduced “Visit Indonesia Year (VIY)” in 1991. A year later, the branding changed into “Let’s Go Archipelago” in 1992. One of famous tourism taglines of Indonesia is “Unity in Diversity” in 2008 and this branding was also used by ASEAN. Indonesia introduced the recent campaign in 2011 with “Wonderful Indonesia.”

11. ASEAN

Currently, ASEAN uses the motto of “One Vision, One Identity, One Community.” In 2009, the representatives of ASEAN countries signed MOU that marked the effort of tourism cooperation and promotion in ASEAN. Actually, this effort has been implemented since 1992 at ASEAN 25th anniversary. However, there was no significant improvement from the campaign.

ASEAN member countries have been co-operating on regional tourism destination marketing and development, with varying degrees of commitment, over the past two decades. From 1988 to 1996, they funded an ASEAN Tourism Information Centre (ATIC). In 1992, they staged a “Visit ASEAN Year” promotion to recognize the 25th anniversary of the founding of ASEAN.

Ultimately, “Asia’s Perfect 10 Paradise” was promoted and in 2012 ASEAN introduced its new tourism tagline namely “Southeast Asia, Feel The Warmth” as well as introducing the ASEAN Tourism Forum. There is no comprehensive study that compares the branding of each country in Asean. Asian forums need to conduct further studies to measure the effectiveness of existing branding. So that the established branding will be cohesive as an Asian and not compete in an unhealthy way.

3. CONCLUSION

As stated previously, this article still needs preliminary research. The conclusion made is still far from perfect and it requires further discussion. There are few notes that we have made from this article among others:

1. Asean tourism forum has promoted integrated tourism in Asean

2. Tourism branding can increase the number of tourist visits

3. Branding is needed to distinguish the uniqueness of each ASEAN country

4. Asean countries branding has similarity in promoting cultural heritage, natural tourism, cultural attraction and traditional festivals

5. The study of branding is a study that is a rising trend. Because it can enrich the study of communication and tourism. We strongly recommend to do a study of deeper and more comprehensive branding

REFERENCES

Antariksa, Basuki. 2016. Kebijakan Pembangunan Kepariwisataaan: Pengembangan Kepariwisataan yang Berkelanjutan dan Perlindungan Kekayaan Intelektual. Malang: Intrans Publishing.

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Haboddin, Muhtar, dkk (2013). Inovasi Pemerintahan Daerah. Malang: Pusat Kajian Inovasi Pemerintahan dan Kerjasama Antar Daerah.

Hasan, Ali. 2015. Tourism Marketing. Jakarta: PT. Buku Seru

Holt, Douglas dan Douglas Cameron. 2010. Cultural Strategy. Jakarta: PT. Elex Media Komputindo Kartajaya,

Hermawan dan Yuswohady (2005). Positioning, Diferensiasi, and Brand Concepts: Strategy That Works. Jakarta : PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Kotler, Philip dan Kevin Lane Keller (2008). Manajemen Pemasaran. Jakarta: Erlangga

Morgan, Nigel, Anette Pritchard, Roger Pride, ed (2002). Destination Branding: Creating The Unique Destination Proposition. Oxford: Butterworth

Heinemann (2004) Destination Branding: Creating The Unique Destination Proposition second edition. London: Elsevier

Butterworth-Heinemann Prastowo, Andi (2012). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif dalam Perspektif Rancangan Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media

Santoso, Agus (2013). Menyingkap Tabir Otonomi Daerah di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Sunyoto, Danang cet-3 (2014). Dasar-dasar Manajemen Pemasaran (Konsep, Strategi, Kasus). Yogyakarta: Center of Academic Publishing Service.

Wandari, Lita Ayu dkk (2014). Pengaruh City Branding Shining Batu Terhadap City Image dan Keputusan Berkunjung Wisatawan Kota Batu Tahun 2014. Malang: Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis (JAB) Vol. 16 No. 1 Tahun 2014.

Wasesa, Silih Agung. 2011. Political Branding dan Public Relations. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Widi, Restu Kartiko (2010). Asas Metodologi Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu

Yananda, Rahmat dan Ummi Salamah. 2014. Branding Tempat: Membangun Kota, Kabupaten, dan Provinsi Berbasis Identitas. Jakarta:

Journals:

Asseraf,Y., & Shoham, 2016. A Destination branding: The role of consumer affinity. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.06.004

Crombie, B. (2011) “Branding Cities and Clusters for Economic development”, The ISM Journal of International Business, ISSN 2150-1076, Volume 1, Issue 3, December, 2011.

Hazime, Hanan. 2012. From city branding to e-rands in developing countries: An approach to Qatar and Abu Dhabi. African Journal of Business Management Vol. 5(12), pp. 4731-4745, 18 June, 2011

Herget, J., Petrů, Z., Abrhám, J. (2015), City branding and its economic impacts on tourism, Economics and Sociology, Vol. 8, No 1, pp. 119-126. DOI: 10.14254/2071- 789X.2015/8-1/9

Hudson, S. 2016. Let the journey begin (again): The branding of Myanmar. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.06.002

Source: 231170-tourism-branding-in-asean-countries-5b53c19b

Two sides of the same coin


This is my first article at New Mandala in Australian National University, written with my colleague Anggun Susilo. The article was published on 18 January 2017. Enjoy!

The original source: http://www.newmandala.org/two-sides-coin/

Western concepts of ‘good governance’ can overlook the significant benefits other models, such as patron-client arrangements, can deliver on the ground, Anggun Susilo and Restu Karlina write.

One of the biggest buzzwords in politics and government studies is governance. In almost every developing country in the world, it has become a prominent term. However, the definition of governance and how it should be used has never been settled. This isn’t helped by the fact that several ideas are associated with governance, including as transparency, accountability, capacity building and clean government.

In Indonesia, international actors have introduced the concept of governance, along with decentralisation and democratisation, aiming for the elimination of the inherited problems of KorupsiKolusiNepotisme (KKN, or corruption, collusion and nepotism).

Here, ‘inherited’ refers to the acute difficulties stemming from Suharto’s regime. Undoubtedly, corruption, collusion and nepotism remain in place although the country has experienced regime transition from authoritarian to post-‘reformasi’ and democracy. One of the KKN forms that is still found in many areas of Indonesia is patron-client arrangements. There are many definitions of patron-client but, in short, this is about the relation between the powerful and the powerless usually in public elections. The latter serves the former usually in the form of a ‘vote’ while the former gives concessions in return.

Plenty of research shows that patron-client practices are bad for democracy. Thus, governance comes in to prevent them. However, this argument stands in contrast to the case of Blitar municipality where patron-client practices go hand-in-hand with better public service (the very essence of governance).

The last election, held in 2015, was perhaps one of the most remarkable victories for the current Mayor of Blitar. He won 92 per cent of the vote, which was the highest in any Indonesian district election. Despite his resounding victory, people have been discussing his leadership. In addition, he come from a poor family, telling voters “I was very poor and unable to go to school. Therefore, I will do my best for Blitar people so they can go to school and live better.”

His personal experiences motivated him more to serve people better. Accordingly, many of his programs are dedicated to the poor.

The Mayor is a very humble man. His personality makes him accessible to local residents. In our interviews he raised the example of how he personally replies promptly to text messages from residents. People also receive his first-hand assistance at every funeral. On the spot, some money is given to the family as his way of expressing condolence.

Public service in Blitar is also considered to have improved. This is demonstrated by a significant increase in the local budget for two crucial sectors; education and health. The budget for education is about 46 per cent of total expenditure. It is far beyond the national standard, which sits at about 20 per cent as mandated by national law. This budget is dedicated to providing free education from kindergarten up to high school. This also includes free uniforms, school stationery, a pair of shoes and a bike. For local residents who study at university, there is a grant of 1 million rupiah (roughly US $100).

Similar to education, a significant portion of the budget is allocated to the health sector. This is to provide free-of-charge health services in government facilities. There are also additional funds for serious illnesses like cancer. Meanwhile, a claiming mechanism is applied to hospital treatments meaning that people may get the treatment first and claim the cost afterwards. According to information from hospital staff, to get this free-of-charge service, people should present their ‘kartu miskin’ (card for the poor) prior to treatment.

This analysis of Blitar illustrates that the patron-client practice is not only associated with negative governance. Rather, in contrast, it shows the patron-client practice can go hand-in- hand with better public services. The Blitarexample also shows how the local context largely influences externally conceived agendas like governance.

Anggun Susilo and Restu Karlina are senior lecturers at University of Brawijaya, Indonesia. Government and politics are two majors that both authors are interested in. Apart from lecturing, Anggun and Restu are actively engaged with capacity building activities.

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